Laos


Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao ) ou communément appelé son nom familier de Muang Lao ( Lao : ເມືອງ ລາວ, Muang Lao ) est un pays enclavé au cœur de la péninsule indochinoise du continent asiatique du Sud-Est , bordé par le Myanmar (Birmanie) et la Chine au nord-ouest , Vietnam à l’est, le Cambodge au sud – ouest, et la Thaïlande à l’ouest et au sud – ouest. [dix] Muang Lao ) est un pays enclavé au cœur de la péninsule indochinoise du Sud – Est continentale Asie , bordée par le Myanmar (Birmanie) et la Chine au nord – ouest, Vietnam à l’est, le Cambodge au sud – ouest, et la Thaïlande à l’ouest et au sud – ouest. [dix] Muang Lao ) est un pays enclavé au cœur de la péninsule indochinoise du Sud – Est continentale Asie , bordée par le Myanmar (Birmanie) et la Chine au nord – ouest, Vietnam à l’est, le Cambodge au sud – ouest, et la Thaïlande à l’ouest et au sud – ouest. [dix]

Aujourd’hui, le Laos trace son identité historique et culturelle dans le royaume de Lan Xang Hom Khao (Royaume d’un Million d’Éléphants Sous le Parasol Blanc), qui existe depuis quatre siècles comme l’un des plus grands royaumes d’ Asie du Sud-Est . [11] En raison de la situation géographique centrale de Lan Xang en Asie du Sud-Est, le royaume a pu devenir un centre populaire pour le commerce terrestre, devenir riche aussi bien sur le plan économique que culturel. [11]

Après une période de conflit interne, Lan Xang s’est séparé en trois royaumes séparés: Luang Phrabang , Vientiane et Champasak . En 1893, il est devenu un protectorat français , les trois territoires se réunissant pour former ce qu’on appelle maintenant le pays du Laos. Il a brièvement gagné son indépendance en 1945 après l’occupation japonaise , mais est revenu à la règle française jusqu’à ce qu’il lui soit accordé l’autonomie en 1949. Le Laos est devenu indépendant en 1953, avec une monarchie constitutionnelle sous Sisavang Vong . Peu de temps après l’indépendance, une longue guerre civile a mis fin à la monarchie , lorsque le mouvement communiste Pathet Lao est entré au pouvoir en 1975.

Le Laos est une république socialiste à parti unique . Il épouse le marxisme et est régi par le parti révolutionnaire du peuple lao , dans lequel la direction du parti est dominée par des personnalités militaires. La République socialiste du Vietnam et l’ Armée populaire du Vietnam continuent d’avoir une influence notable au Laos. La capitale est Vientiane . D’autres grandes villes incluent Luang Prabang , Savannakhet et Pakse . La langue officielle est Lao . Le Laos est un pays multiethnique avec des personnes Lao politiquement et culturellement dominantes représentant environ 60% de la population, Principalement dans les basses terres. Les groupes du Mon-Khmer , les Hmong et les autres tribus indigènes des montagnes, représentant 40 pour cent de la population, vivent dans les contreforts et les montagnes.

Laos stratégies ambitieuses de développement sont basées sur la production d’ électricité à partir de ses rivières et la vente de la puissance à ses voisins, à savoir la Thaïlande , la Chine et le Vietnam , ainsi que son initiative pour devenir une « nation liée terre », montre la planification des Quatre nouveaux chemins de fer reliant le Laos à ces mêmes pays . [12]Ceci, avec la croissance du secteur minier, le Laos a été désigné comme l’une des économies les plus dynamiques de l’Asie de l’Est et du Pacifique par la Banque mondiale , avec une croissance annuelle du PIB de 7% au cours de la dernière décennie. [13] [14]

Il est membre de l’ Accord commercial Asie-Pacifique (APTA), de l’Association des nations de l’ Asie du Sud- Est (ASEAN), du Sommet de l’Asie de l’Est et de la Francophonie . Le Laos a demandé l’adhésion à l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) en 1997; Le 2 février 2013, on lui a accordé une adhésion complète. [15]

Selon l’organisation non gouvernementale anticorruption Transparency International , le Laos demeure l’un des pays les plus corrompus du monde. Cela a dissuadé les investissements étrangers et créé des problèmes majeurs avec la règle de droit, y compris la capacité du pays à appliquer la réglementation des contrats et des entreprises. [16] Cela a contribué à un tiers de la population du Laos vivant actuellement sous le seuil de pauvreté international (vivant avec moins de US $ 1,25 par jour). [17] Le Laos a une économie à faible revenu, avec l’un des revenus annuels les plus bas au monde. En 2014, le pays s’est classé 141ème sur l’ Indice de développement humain (IDH), ce qui indique un développement moyen plus faible. [18] Selon l’ Indice mondial de la faim (2015), le Laos se classe comme la 29ème nation la plus glorieuse du monde hors de la liste des 52 nations ayant la plus mauvaise situation de la faim. [19] Le Laos a également eu un mauvais dossier sur les droits de l’homme.

Etymologie

Le mot anglais Laos a été inventé par les Français, qui ont unis les trois royaumes lao en Indochine française en 1893 et ​​ont désigné le pays comme le pluriel du groupe ethnique dominant et le plus commun, qui sont le peuple lao .

En langue lao , le nom du pays est ” Muang Lao ” ( ເມືອງ ລາວ ) ou “Pathet Lao” ( ປະ ເທດ ລາວ ): les deux signifient littéralement “Lao Country”. [20]

Histoire

Early history

Un ancien crâne humain a été récupéré de la grotte Tam Pa Ling dans les Monts Annamites dans le nord du Laos; Le crâne a au moins 46 000 ans, ce qui en fait le plus ancien fossile humain moderne trouvé à ce jour en Asie du Sud-Est. [21] Des artefacts en pierre, y compris des types Hoabinhian , ont été trouvés sur des sites datant du Pléistocène tardif dans le nord du Laos. [22] Les preuves archéologiques suggèrent une société agricole développée au cours du 4ème millénaire avant JC. Les jarres d’inhumation et d’autres types de sépulcre suggèrent une société complexe dans laquelle des objets en bronze apparurent vers 1500 av. J.-C., et des outils en fer étaient connus depuis 700 av. J.-C. La période proto-historique se caractérise par le contact avec les civilisations chinoises et indiennes. Selon des preuves historiques et historiques, les tribus de Tai-parlant ont migré vers le sud-ouest vers les territoires modernes du Laos et de la Thaïlande depuis le Guangxi quelque temps entre les 8ème et 10ème siècles. [23]

Lan Xang

Laos retrace son histoire au royaume de Lan Xang (million d’ éléphants), fondée au 14ème siècle, par un prince Lao Fa Ngum , [24] : 223 qui , avec 10.000 khmers troupes, a pris Vientiane . Ngum était descendu d’une longue lignée de rois de Lao, remontant à Khoun Boulom. Il a fait du bouddhisme Theravada, la religion d’Etat et Lan Xang ont prospéré. Dans les 20 ans de sa formation, le royaume s’étendait vers l’est jusqu’à Champa et le long des montagnes annamites au Vietnam. Ses ministres, incapables de tolérer son impitoyable, l’ont forcé à exil dans la province thaïlandaise actuelle de Nan en 1373, [25] où il est décédé. Le fils aîné de Fa Ngum, Oun Heuan, Est venu au trône sous le nom Samsenthai et a régné pendant 43 ans. Pendant son règne, Lan Xang est devenu un important centre de commerce. Après sa mort en 1421, Lan Xang s’est effondré en factions belligérantes pour les 100 prochaines années.

En 1520, Photisarath est venu au trône et a déplacé la capitale de Luang Prabang à Vientiane pour éviter une invasion birmane . Setthathirat est devenu roi en 1548, après que son père a été tué, et a ordonné la construction de ce qui deviendrait le symbole du Laos, That Luang . Setthathirat a disparu dans les montagnes en rentrant d’une expédition militaire au Cambodge et Lan Xang a commencé à décliner rapidement.

Ce n’est qu’en 1637, lorsque Sourigna Vongsa est montée sur le trône, que Lan Xang élargira ses frontières. Son règne est souvent considéré comme l’âge d’or du Laos. Quand il est mort, laissant Lan Xang sans héritier, le royaume divisé en trois principautés. Entre 1763 et 1769, les armées birmanes ont envahi le nord du Laos et annexé Luang Prabang , alors que Champasak finalement est venu sous siamois suzeraineté .

Chao Anouvong a été installé comme roi vétéran de Vientiane par les Siamois. Il a encouragé la renaissance des arts et la littérature du Lao et a amélioré les relations avec Luang Phrabang. Sous la pression vietnamienne, il s’est révolté contre les Siamois en 1826 . La rébellion a échoué et Vientiane a été saccagée. [26] Anouvong a été emmené à Bangkok en tant que prisonnier , où il est décédé.

Une campagne militaire siamaise au Laos en 1876 a été décrite par un observateur britannique comme ayant été «transformée en raids de chasse d’esclaves à grande échelle». [27]

Laos français (1893-1953)

À la fin du 19ème siècle, Luang Prabang a été saccagé par l’ armée chinoise du drapeau noir . [28] La France a sauvé le roi Oun Kham et a ajouté Luang Phrabang au Protectorat de l’Indochine française . Peu de temps après, le Royaume de Champasak et le territoire de Vientiane ont été ajoutés au protectorat. Le roi Sisavang Vong de Luang Phrabang est devenu le chef d’un Laos et de Vientiane unifiés, une fois de plus devenu la capitale.

Le Laos n’a jamais eu d’importance pour la France [29] autrement que comme un état tampon entre la Thaïlande influencée par les Britanniques et l’ Annam et le Tonkin, économiquement importants . Au cours de leur règne, les Français ont introduit la corvée , un système qui obligeait tous les hommes Lao à contribuer 10 jours de travail manuel par an au gouvernement colonial. Laos a produit l’ étain , le caoutchouc et le café, mais jamais représenté plus d’un pour cent des exportations de l’ Indochine française. En 1940, environ 600 citoyens français vivaient au Laos. [30]

During World War II in Laos, Vichy France, fascist Thailand, Imperial Japan, Free France, and Chinese nationalist armies occupied Laos. On 9 March 1945, a nationalist group declared Laos once more independent, with Luang Prabang as its capital but on 7 April 1945 two battalions of Japanese troops occupied the city.[31] The Japanese attempted to force Sisavang Vong (the King of Luang Phrabang) to declare Laotian independence but on 8 April he instead simply declared an end to Laos’ status as a French protectorate. The King then secretly sent Prince Kindavong to represent Laos to the Allied forces and Prince Sisavang as representative to the Japanese.[31] When Japan surrendered, some Lao nationalists (including Prince Phetsarath) declared Laotian independence, but by early 1946, French troops had reoccupied the country and conferred limited autonomy on Laos.

Au cours de la première guerre d’Indochine , le Parti communiste indochinois a formé l’ organisation de résistance de Pathet Lao . Le Pathet Lao a commencé une guerre contre les forces coloniales françaises avec l’aide de l’ organisation d’ indépendance vietnamienne (le Viet Minh ). En 1950, les Français accordèrent à la semi-autonomie du Laos un «état associé» au sein de l’ Union française . La France est restée dans le contrôle de facto jusqu’au 22 octobre 1953, lorsque le Laos a acquis une indépendance totale en tant que monarchie constitutionnelle .

Indépendance et règle communiste (1953-présent)

Le général français Salan et le prince Sisavang Vatthana à Luang Prabang, le 4 mai 1953.

La première guerre de l’Indochine s’est déroulée dans toute l’Indochine française et a finalement mené à la défaite française et à la signature d’un accord de paix pour le Laos à la Conférence de Genève de 1954 . En 1955, le Département de la Défense des États-Unis a créé un bureau spécial d’ évaluation des programmes pour remplacer le soutien français de l’ armée royale lao contre le communiste Pathet Lao dans le cadre de la politique de confinement des États-Unis .

En 1960, au milieu d’une série de rébellions dans le royaume du Laos , des combats ont éclaté entre l’armée royale du Laos et le Vietnam communiste soutenu par le Vietnam , et l’Union soviétique a soutenu les guérillas Pathet Lao. Un second gouvernement provisoire d’unité nationale formé par le prince Souvanna Phouma en 1962 s’est révélé infructueux et la situation s’est constamment détériorée en guerre civile à grande échelle entre le gouvernement royal du Laos et le Pathet Lao. Le Pathet Lao a été soutenu militairement par la NVA et le Vietcong .

Les ruines de Muang Khoun , ancienne capitale de la province de Xiangkhouang , ont été détruites par les bombardements américains du Laos à la fin des années 1960.

Le Laos était un élément clé de la guerre du Vietnam depuis que des parties du Laos ont été envahies et occupées par le Vietnam du Nord pour servir de route d’approvisionnement pour sa guerre contre le Sud . En réponse, les États-Unis ont lancé une campagne de bombardement contre les positions nord-vietnamiennes, ont soutenu les forces anticommunistes régulières et irrégulières au Laos et ont soutenu les incursions sud- vietnamiennes au Laos.

En 1968, l’armée nord-vietnamienne a lancé une attaque multi-division pour aider le Pathet Lao à combattre l’armée royale du Laos. L’attaque a amené l’armée à se démobiliser en grande partie, laissant le conflit aux forces de l’ Hmong ethniques irrégulières de l’armée américaine secrète soutenue par les États-Unis et la Thaïlande et dirigée par le général Vang Pao .

Massive aerial bombardment against the Pathet Lao and invading People’s Army of Vietnam forces were carried out by the United States to prevent the collapse of the Royal Kingdom of Laos central government, and to deny the use of the Ho Chi Minh Trail to attack US forces in the Republic of Vietnam. Between 1964 and 1973, the U.S. dropped two million tons of bombs on Laos, nearly equal to the 2.1 million tons of bombs the U.S. dropped on Europe and Asia during all of World War II, making Laos the most heavily bombed country in history relative to the size of its population; The New York Times noted this was “nearly a ton for every person in Laos.”[32] Some 80 million bombs failed to explode and remain scattered throughout the country, rendering vast swathes of land impossible to cultivate and killing or maiming 50 Laotians every year.[33] (Due to the particularly heavy impact of cluster bombs during this war, Laos was a strong advocate of the Convention on Cluster Munitions to ban the weapons, and was host to the First Meeting of States Parties to the convention in November 2010.[34])

In 1975 the Pathet Lao, along with the Vietnam People’s Army, and backed by the Soviet Union, overthrew the royalist Lao government, forcing King Savang Vatthana to abdicate on 2 December 1975. He later died in prison. Between 20,000 and 70,000 Laotians died during the Civil War.[35][36][37][38]

Le 2 décembre 1975, après avoir pris le contrôle du pays, le gouvernement Pathet Lao sous Kaysone Phomvihane a renommé le pays en tant que République démocratique populaire lao et a signé des accords donnant au Vietnam le droit de stationner des forces armées et de nommer des conseillers pour aider à superviser le pays. Le Laos a été demandé en 1979 par la République socialiste du Vietnam pour mettre fin aux relations avec la République populaire de Chine , ce qui a entraîné l’isolement dans les échanges commerciaux entre la Chine, les États-Unis et d’autres pays.

En plus du Nord invasion vietnamienne du Laos , par le Soviet adossés à l’ Armée du Vietnam Les gens, l’occupation post-guerre du Vietnam du Laos a continué au cours des années 1970 et 1980.

The conflict between Hmong rebels and the Vietnam People’s Army of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), as well as the SRV-backed Pathet Lao continued in key areas of Laos, including in Saysaboune Closed Military Zone, Xaisamboune Closed Military Zone near Vientiane Province and Xieng Khouang Province. From 1975 to 1996, the United States resettled some 250,000 Lao refugees from Thailand, including 130,000 Hmong.[39] (See: Indochina refugee crisis)

Geography

Laos is the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia, and it lies mostly between latitudes 14° and 23°N (a small area is south of 14°), and longitudes 100° and 108°E. Its thickly forested landscape consists mostly of rugged mountains, the highest of which is Phou Bia at 2,818 metres (9,245 ft), with some plains and plateaus. The Mekong River forms a large part of the western boundary with Thailand, whereas the mountains of the Annamite Range form most of the eastern border with Vietnam and the Luang Prabang Range the northwestern border with the Thai highlands. There are two plateaux, the Xiangkhoang in the north and the Bolaven Plateau at the southern end. The climate is tropical and influenced by the monsoon pattern.[40]

There is a distinct rainy season from May to November, followed by a dry season from December to April. Local tradition holds that there are three seasons (rainy, cold and hot) as the latter two months of the climatologically defined dry season are noticeably hotter than the earlier four months. The capital and largest city of Laos is Vientiane and other major cities include Luang Prabang, Savannakhet, and Pakse.[citation needed]

In 1993 the Laos government set aside 21 percent of the nation’s land area for habitat conservation preservation.[41] The country is one of four in the opium poppy growing region known as the “Golden Triangle”. According to the October 2007 UNODC fact book Opium Poppy Cultivation in South East Asia, the poppy cultivation area was 15 square kilometres (5.8 sq mi), down from 18 square kilometres (6.9 sq mi) in 2006.

Laos can be considered to consist of three geographical areas: north, central, and south.[42]

Administrative divisions

Laos is divided into 17 provinces (khoueng) and one prefecture (kampheng nakhon) which includes the capital city Vientiane (Nakhon Louang Viangchan). The new province, Xaisomboun Province, was established on 13 December 2013. Provinces are further divided into districts (muang) and then villages (ban). An “urban” village is essentially a town.[42]

Subdivisions Capital Area (km²) Population
1 Attapeu Attapeu (Samakkhixay District) 10,320 114,300
2 Bokeo Ban Houayxay (Houayxay District) 6,196 149,700
3 Bolikhamsai Paksan ( district de Paksane ) 14 863 214 900
4 Champasak Pakse ( district de Pakse ) 15 415 575 600
5 Hua Phan Xam Neua ( district de Xamneua ) 16 500 322 200
6 Khammouane Thakhek ( district de Thakhek ) 16 315 358 800
7 Luang Namtha Luang Namtha ( district de Namtha ) 9 325 150 100
8 Luang Prabang Luang Prabang ( district de Louangprabang ) 16 875 408 800
9 Oudomxay Muang Xay ( district de Xay ) 15 370 275 300
dix Phongsali Phongsali ( district de Phongsaly ) 16 270 199 900
11 Sayabouly Sayabouly ( district de Xayabury ) 16 389 382 200
12 Salavan Salavan ( district de Salavan ) 10 691 336 600
13 Savannakhet Savannakhet ( district de Khanthabouly ) 21 774 721 500
14 Sekong Sekong ( district de Lamarm ) 7 665 83 600
15 Vientiane Capital Vientiane City 3 920 726 000
16 Province de Vientiane Phonhong ( district de Phonhong ) 15 927 373 700
17 Xieng Khouang Phonsavan ( Pek District ) 15 880 229 521
18 Province de Xaisomboun Anouvong ( district d’Anouvong ) 8 300 82 000
Une carte mise à jour des provinces du Laos (à partir de 2014).

Problèmes environnementaux et consignation illégale

Plus d’informations: Déforestation au Laos

Laos is increasingly suffering from environmental problems, with deforestation a particularly significant issue,[43] as expanding commercial exploitation of the forests, plans for additional hydroelectric facilities, foreign demand for wild animals and nonwood forest products for food and traditional medicines, and a growing population all create increasing pressure.

The United Nations Development Programme warns that: “Protecting the environment and sustainable use of natural resources in Lao PDR is vital for poverty reduction and economic growth.”[44]

In April 2011, The Independent newspaper reported that Laos had started work on the controversial Xayaburi Dam on the Mekong River without getting formal approval. Environmentalists say the dam will adversely affect 60 million people and Cambodia and Vietnam—concerned about the flow of water further downstream—are officially opposed to the project. The Mekong River Commission, a regional intergovernmental body designed to promote the “sustainable management” of the river, famed for its giant catfish, carried out a study that warned if Xayaburi and subsequent schemes went ahead, it would “fundamentally undermine the abundance, productivity and diversity of the Mekong fish resources”.[45] Neighbouring Vietnam warned that the dam would harm the Mekong Delta, which is the home to nearly 20 million people and supplies around 50 percent of Vietnam’s rice output and over 70 percent of both its seafood and fruit output.[46]

Milton Osborne, Visiting Fellow at the Lowy Institute for International Policy who has written widely on the Mekong, warns: “The future scenario is of the Mekong ceasing to be a bounteous source of fish and guarantor of agricultural richness, with the great river below China becoming little more than a series of unproductive lakes.”[47]

Illegal logging is also a major problem. Environmental groups estimate that 500,000 cubic metres (18,000,000 cu ft) of logs are being cut by Vietnam People’s Army(VPA) forces, and companies it owns, in co-operation with the Lao People’s Army and then transported from Laos to Vietnam every year, with most of the furniture eventually exported to western countries by the VPA military-owned companies.[48][49][50][51]

A 1992 government survey indicated that forests occupied about 48 percent of Laos’ land area. Forest coverage decreased to 41 percent in a 2002 survey. Lao authorities have said that, in reality, forest coverage might be no more than 35 percent because of development projects such as dams, on top of the losses to illegal logging.[52]

Government and politics

The Lao People’s Democratic Republic, along with China, Cuba and Vietnam, is one of the world’s four or five remaining (North Korea is disputed[53]) socialist states that openly espouse Communism. The only legal political party is the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party (LPRP). The head of state is President Bounnhang Vorachith, and he is the General Secretary of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party.

The head of government is Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith, who is also a member of the Lao Communist Party’s Politburo. Government policies are determined by the party through the all-powerful eleven-member Politburo of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party and the 61-member Central Committee of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party. Important government decisions are vetted by the Council of Ministers. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam maintains significant influence over the Politburo of Laos and the one-party communist state apparatus and military[citation needed].

Laos’s first, French-written and monarchical constitution was promulgated on 11 May 1947, and declared Laos to be an independent state within the French Union. The revised constitution of 11 May 1957 omitted reference to the French Union, though close educational, health and technical ties with the former colonial power persisted. The 1957 document was abrogated on 3 December 1975, when a communist People’s Republic was proclaimed. A new constitution was adopted in 1991 and enshrined a “leading role” for the LPRP. In 1990, deputy minister for science & technology Thongsouk Saysangkhi resigned from the government and party, calling for political reform. He died in captivity in 1998.[54]

In 1992 elections were held for a new 85-seat National Assembly with members, nominated by the one-party communist government, elected by secret ballot to five-year terms. The elections were widely disputed and questioned by Lao and Hmong opposition and dissident groups abroad and in Laos and Thailand. This National Assembly, which essentially acts as a rubber stamp for the LPRP, approves all new laws, although the executive branch retains authority to issue binding decrees. The most recent elections took place in April 2011. The assembly was expanded to 99 members in 1997, to 115 members in 2006 and finally to 132 members during the 2011 elections.[citation needed]

Military

The Lao People’s Armed Forces (LPAF) are small, poorly funded, and ineffectively resourced; its mission focus is border and internal security, primarily in countering ethnic Hmong insurgent and opposition groups; with the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party and the government, the Lao People’s Army (LPA) is the third pillar of state machinery and, as such, is expected to suppress political and civil unrest and similar national emergencies. The LPA has upgraded skills to respond to avian influenza outbreaks; there is no perceived external threat to the state and the LPA maintains strong ties with the neighbouring Vietnamese military (2008)[citation needed].

The army of 130,000 is equipped with 25 main battle tanks. The army marine section, equipped with 16 patrol crafts, has 600 personnel. The air force, with 3,500 personnel, is equipped with anti-aircraft missiles and 24 combat aircraft. Militia self-defence forces number approximately 100,000 organised for local defence. The small arms used by the army include the Soviet AKM assault rifle, PKM machine gun, Makarov PM pistol, and RPD light machine gun.

Since its founding, the LPA has received significant support, training, advisers, troop support and assistance from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the Vietnam People’s Army.

On 17 May 2014 the Defense Minister, who was also Deputy Prime Minister, Major General Douangchay Phichit, with other top ranking officials was killed in a plane crash in the north of the country. The officials were to participate in a ceremony to mark the liberation of the Plain of Jars from the former Royal Lao government forces. Their Russian-built Antonov AN 74–300 with 20 people on board crashed in Xiengkhouang province.[55]

Hmong conflict

The government of Laos has been accused of committing genocide, and human rights and religious freedom violations against the Hmong ethnic minority within its own borders.[56]

Some Hmong groups fought as CIA-backed units on the Royalist side in the Laotian Civil War. After the Pathet Lao took over the country in 1975, the conflict continued in isolated pockets. In 1977, a communist newspaper promised the party would hunt down the “American collaborators” and their families “to the last root”.[57]

As many as 200,000 Hmong went into exile in Thailand, with many ending up in the U.S.A. A number of Hmong fighters hid out in mountains in Xiangkhouang Province for many years, with a remnant emerging from the jungle in 2003.[57]

In 1989, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), with the support of the United States government, instituted the Comprehensive Plan of Action, a programme to stem the tide of Indochinese refugees from Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia. Under the plan, the status of the refugees was to be evaluated through a screening process. Recognized asylum seekers were to be given resettlement opportunities, while the remaining refugees were to be repatriated under guarantee of safety.

After talks with the UNHCR and the Thai government, Laos agreed to repatriate the 60,000 Lao refugees living in Thailand, including several thousand Hmong people. Very few of the Lao refugees, however, were willing to return voluntarily.[58] Pressure to resettle the refugees grew as the Thai government worked to close its remaining refugee camps. While some Hmong people returned to Laos voluntarily, with development assistance from UNHCR, allegations of forced repatriation surfaced.[59] Of those Hmong who did return to Laos, some quickly escaped back to Thailand, describing discrimination and brutal treatment at the hands of Lao authorities.[60]

In 1993, Vue Mai, a former Hmong soldier and leader of the largest Hmong refugee camp in Thailand, who had been recruited by the US Embassy in Bangkok to return to Laos as proof of the repatriation programme’s success, disappeared in Vientiane. According to the US Committee for Refugees, he was arrested by Lao security forces and was never seen again.[61]

Following the Vue Mai incident, debate over the Hmong’s planned repatriation to Laos intensified greatly, especially in the United States, where it drew strong opposition from many American conservatives and some human rights advocates. In a 23 October 1995 National Review article, Michael Johns, the former Heritage Foundation foreign policy expert and Republican White House aide, labelled the Hmong’s repatriation a Clinton administration “betrayal”, describing the Hmong as a people “who have spilled their blood in defense of American geopolitical interests.”[62] Debate on the issue escalated quickly. In an effort to halt the planned repatriation, the Republican-led US Senate and House of Representatives both appropriated funds for the remaining Thailand-based Hmong to be immediately resettled in the United States; Clinton, however, responded by promising a veto of the legislation.

In their opposition of the repatriation plans, Democratic and Republican Members of Congress challenged the Clinton administration’s position that the government of Laos was not systematically violating Hmong human rights. US Representative Steve Gunderson (R-WI), for instance, told a Hmong gathering: “I do not enjoy standing up and saying to my government that you are not telling the truth, but if that is necessary to defend truth and justice, I will do that.”[62] Republicans called several Congressional hearings on alleged persecution of the Hmong in Laos in an apparent attempt to generate further support for their opposition to the Hmong’s repatriation to Laos. Democratic Congressman Bruce Vento, Senator Paul Wellstone, Dana Rohrabacher and others also raised concerns.

Although some accusations of forced repatriation were denied,[63] thousands of Hmong people refused to return to Laos. In 1996 as the deadline for the closure of Thai refugee camps approached, and under mounting political pressure, the United States agreed to resettle Hmong refugees who passed a new screening process.[64] Around 5,000 Hmong people who were not resettled at the time of the camp closures sought asylum at Wat Tham Krabok, a Buddhist monastery in central Thailand where more than 10,000 Hmong refugees had already been living. The Thai government attempted to repatriate these refugees, but the Wat Tham Krabok Hmong refused to leave and the Lao government refused to accept them, claiming they were involved in the illegal drug trade and were of non-Lao origin.[65]

Following threats of forcible removal by the Thai government, the United States, in a significant victory for the Hmong, agreed to accept 15,000 of the refugees in 2003.[66] Several thousand Hmong people, fearing forced repatriation to Laos if they were not accepted for resettlement in the United States, fled the camp to live elsewhere within Thailand where a sizeable Hmong population has been present since the 19th century.[67]

In 2004 and 2005, thousands of Hmong fled from the jungles of Laos to a temporary refugee camp in the Thai province of Phetchabun.[68] These Hmong refugees, many of whom are descendants of the former-CIA Secret Army and their relatives, claim that they have been attacked by both the Lao and Vietnamese military forces operating inside Laos as recently as June 2006. The refugees claim that attacks against them have continued almost unabated since the war officially ended in 1975, and have become more intense in recent years.

Lending further support to earlier claims that the government of Laos was persecuting the Hmong, filmmaker Rebecca Sommer documented first-hand accounts in her documentary, Hunted Like Animals,[69] and in a comprehensive report which includes summaries of claims made by the refugees and was submitted to the UN in May 2006.[70]

The European Union,[71] UNHCHR, and international groups have since spoken out about the forced repatriation.[71][72][73][74] The Thai foreign ministry has said that it will halt deportation of Hmong refugees held in Detention Centres in Nong Khai, while talks are underway to resettle them in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands and the United States.[75]

For the time being, countries willing to resettle the refugees are hindered in their immigration and settlement procedures because the Thai administration does not grant them access to the refugees. Plans to resettle additional Hmong refugees in the United States have been complicated by provisions of President George W. Bush’s Patriot Act and Real ID Act, under which Hmong veterans of the Secret War, who fought on the side of the United States, are classified as terrorists because of their historical involvement in armed conflict.

On 27 December 2009, the New York Times reported that the Thai military was preparing to forcibly return 4,000 Hmong asylum seekers to Laos by the end of the year:[76] the BBC later reported that repatriations had started.[77]Both United States and United Nations officials have protested this action. Outside government representatives have not been allowed to interview this group over the last three years. Médecins Sans Frontières has refused to assist the Hmong refugees because of what they have called “increasingly restrictive measures” taken by the Thai military.[78] The Thai military jammed all cellular phone reception and disallowed any foreign journalists from the Hmong camps.[77]

Human rights

Main article: Human rights in Laos

Human rights violations remain a significant concern in Laos. Prominent civil society advocates, human rights defenders, political and religious dissidents, and Hmong refugees have disappeared at the hands of Lao military and security forces.[79]

Ostensibly, the Constitution of Laos that was promulgated in 1991, and amended in 2003, contains most key safeguards for human rights. For example, Article 8 makes it clear that Laos is a multiethnic state and is committed to equality between ethnic groups. The Constitution also contains provisions for gender equality, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and freedom of press and assembly. On 25 September 2009, Laos ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, nine years after signing the treaty. The stated policy objectives of both the Lao government and international donors remain focused upon achieving sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction.[80][81]

However, the government of Laos frequently breaches its own constitution and the rule of law, since the judiciary and judges are appointed by the ruling communist party—an independent judicial branch does not exist. According to Amnesty International,[82] Human Rights Watch, The Centre for Public Policy Analysis, and other independent human rights organisations and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), serious human rights violations are ongoing.[citation needed]

Amnesty International raised concerns about the ratification record of the Lao government on human rights standards, and its lack of co-operation with the UN human rights mechanisms and legislative measures—both impact negatively upon human rights. The organisation also raised concerns in relation to freedom of expression, poor prison conditions, restrictions on freedom of religions, protection of refugees and asylum-seekers, and the death penalty.[82]

In October 1999, 30 young people were arrested for attempting to display posters calling for peaceful economic, political and social change in Laos. Five of them were arrested and subsequently sentenced to up to 10 years imprisonment on charges of treason. One has since died due to his treatment by prison guards, while one has been released. The surviving three men should have been released by October 2009, but their whereabouts remain unknown.[82] Later reports have contradicted this, claiming they were sentenced to 20 years in prison.[83] In late February 2017, two of those imprisoned were finally released after 17 years.[84]

Laos and Vietnamese (SRV) troops were reported to have raped and killed four Christian Hmong women in Xieng Khouang province in 2011, according to the US-based non-governmental public policy research organisation The Centre for Public Policy Analysis.[clarification needed] CPPA also said other Christian and independent Buddhist and animist believers were being persecuted.[85][86]

The Centre for Public Policy Analysis, Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, US Commission on International Religious Freedom, the Lao Veterans of America, Inc. and other non-governmental organisations (NGO)s have reported egregious human rights violations, religious persecution, the arrest and imprisonment of political and religious dissidents as well as extrajudicial killings, in Laos by government military and security forces.[87] Human rights advocates including Vang Pobzeb, Kerry and Kay Danes and others have also raised concerns about human rights violations, torture, the arrest and detention of political prisoners as well as the detention of foreign prisoners in Laos including at the infamous Phonthong Prison in Vientiane. Concerns have been raised about the high-profile abduction of Laotian civic activist and Lao PDR’s only living Ramon Magsaysay Award laureate Sombath Somphone by Lao security forces and police on 15. December 2012.

Economy

The Lao economy depends heavily on investment and trade with its neighbours, Thailand, Vietnam, and, especially in the north, China. Pakxe has also experienced growth based on cross-border trade with Thailand and Vietnam. In 2009, despite the fact that the government is still officially communist, the Obama administration in the US declared Laos was no longer a Marxist–Leninist state and lifted bans on Laotian companies receiving financing from the US Export-Import Bank.[88] In 2011, the Lao Securities Exchange began trading. In 2012, the government initiated the creation of the Laos Trade Portal, a website incorporating all information traders need to import and export goods into the country.

In 2016, China was the biggest foreign investor in Laos’ economy, having invested in US$5.395 billion since 1989, according to Laos Ministry of Planning and Investment 1989–2014 report. Thailand (invested US$4.489 billion) and Vietnam (invested US$3.108 billion) are the second and third largest investors respectively.[89]

Subsistence agriculture still accounts for half of the GDP and provides 80 percent of employment. Only 4.01 percent of the country is arable land, and a mere 0.34 percent used as permanent crop land,[90] the lowest percentage in the Greater Mekong Subregion.[91] Rice dominates agriculture, with about 80 percent of the arable land area used for growing rice.[92]Approximately 77 percent of Lao farm households are self-sufficient in rice.[93]

Through the development, release and widespread adoption of improved rice varieties, and through economic reforms, production has increased by an annual rate of five percent between 1990 and 2005,[94] and Lao PDR achieved a net balance of rice imports and exports for the first time in 1999.[95] Lao PDR may have the greatest number of rice varieties in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Since 1995 the Lao government has been working with the International Rice Research Institute of the Philippines to collect seed samples of each of the thousands of rice varieties found in Laos.[96]

The economy receives development aid from the IMF, ADB, and other international sources; and also foreign direct investment for development of the society, industry, hydropower and mining (most notably of copper and gold). Tourism is the fastest-growing industry in the country. Economic development in Laos has been hampered by brain drain, with a skilled emigration rate of 37.4 percent in 2000.[97]

Laos is rich in mineral resources and imports petroleum and gas. Metallurgy is an important industry, and the government hopes to attract foreign investment to develop the substantial deposits of coal, gold, bauxite, tin, copper, and other valuable metals. In addition, the country’s plentiful water resources and mountainous terrain enable it to produce and export large quantities of hydroelectric energy. Of the potential capacity of approximately 18,000 megawatts, around 8,000 megawatts have been committed for exporting to Thailand and Vietnam.[98]

The country’s most widely recognised product may well be Beerlao which is exported to many developed countries around the world such as the US, British, Germany, Japan, South Korea including neighbours Cambodia and Vietnam. It is produced by the Lao Brewery Company.

The Mining industry of Laos has received prominent attention with Foreign Direct Investments (FDI). This sector, since 2003–04, has made significant contributions to the economic condition of Laos. More than 540 mineral deposits of gold, copper, zinc, lead and other minerals have been identified, explored and mined.[99]

Tourism

Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Wat Phu, looking back towards the Mekong River.

The tourism sector has grown rapidly, from 80,000 international visitors in 1990, to 1.876 million in 2010.[100] Tourism is expected to contribute US$679.1 million to the gross national product in 2010, rising to US$1.5857 billion by 2020. In 2010, one in every 10.9 jobs was in the tourism sector. Export earnings from international visitors and tourism goods are expected to generate 15.5 percent of total exports or US$270.3 million in 2010, growing in nominal terms to US$484.2 million (12.5 percent of the total) in 2020.[101]

The official tourism slogan is “Simply Beautiful”. The main attractions for tourists include Buddhist culture and colonial architecture in Luang Prabang; gastronomy and ancient temples in the capital of Vientiane; backpacking in Muang Ngoi Neua and Vang Vieng; ancient and modern culture and history in the Plain of Jars region (main article: Phonsavan); Laos Civil War history in Sam Neua; trekking and visiting hill tribes in a number of areas including Phongsaly and Luang Namtha; spotting tigers and other wildlife in Nam Et-Phou Louey; caves and waterfalls near Thakhek; relaxation, the Irrawaddy dolphin and Khone Phapheng Falls at Si Phan Don or, as they are known in English, the Four Thousand Islands; Wat Phu, an ancient Khmer temple complex; and the Bolaven Plateau for waterfalls and coffee. The European Council on Trade and Tourism awarded the country the “World Best Tourist Destination” designation for 2013 for this combination of architecture and history.[102]

Luang Prabang and Wat Phu are both UNESCO World Heritage sites, with the Plain of Jars expected to join them once more work to clear UXO has been completed. Major festivals include Lao New Year celebrated around 13–15 April and involves a water festival similar but more subdued than that of Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries.

The Lao National Tourism Administration, related government agencies and the private sector are working together to realize the vision put forth in the country’s National Ecotourism Strategy and Action Plan. This includes decreasing the environmental and cultural impact of tourism; increasing awareness in the importance of ethnic groups and biological diversity; providing a source of income to conserve, sustain and manage the Lao protected area network and cultural heritage sites; and emphasizing the need for tourism zoning and management plans for sites that will be developed as ecotourism destinations.[103]

Laos is known for its silk and local handicraft product, both of which are on display in Luang Prabang’s night market, among other places. Another specialty is mulberry tea.

Infrastructure

The main international airports are Vientiane’s Wattay International Airport and Luang Prabang International Airport with Pakse International Airport also having a few international flights. The national carrier is Lao Airlines. Other carriers serving the country include Bangkok Airways, Vietnam Airlines, AirAsia, Thai Airways International, China Eastern Airlines and Silk Air.

Much of Laos lacks adequate infrastructure. Laos has no railways, except a short link to connect Vientiane with Thailand over the Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge. A short portage railway, the Don Det—Don Khon narrow gauge railway was built by the French in Champasak Province but has been closed since the 1940s. In the late 1920s, work began on the Thakhek–Tan Ap railway that would have run between Thakhek, Khammouane Province and Tân Ấp Railway Station, Quảng Bình Province, Vietnam through the Mụ Giạ Pass. The scheme was aborted in the 1930s. The major roads connecting the major urban centres, in particular Route 13, have been significantly upgraded in recent years, but villages far from major roads can be reached only through unpaved roads that may not be accessible year-round.

There is limited external and internal telecommunication, but mobile phones have become widespread in urban centres. In many rural areas electricity is at least partly available. Songthaews (pick-up trucks with benches) are used in the country for long-distance and local public transport.

Laos has made particularly noteworthy progress increasing access to sanitation and has already met its 2015 Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target.[104] Laos’ predominantly rural (68 percent, source: Department of Statistics, Ministry of Planning and Investment, 2009) population makes investing in sanitation difficult. In 1990 only eight percent of the rural population had access to improved sanitation.[104]Access rose rapidly from 10 percent in 1995 to 38 percent in 2008. Between 1995 and 2008 approximately 1,232,900 more people had access to improved sanitation in rural areas.[104]

Laos’ progress is notable in comparison to similar developing countries.[104] This success is in part due to small-scale independent providers emerging in a spontaneous manner or having been promoted by public authorities. The authorities in Laos have recently developed an innovative regulatory framework for Public–Private partnership contracts signed with small enterprises, in parallel with more conventional regulation of State-owned water enterprises.[105]

Demographics

The term “Laotian” does not necessarily refer to the Lao language, ethnic Lao people, language or customs. It is a political term that includes the non-ethnic Lao groups within Laos and identifies them as “Laotian” because of their political citizenship. Laos has the youngest population of any country in Asia with a median age of 21.6 years.

Laos’ population was estimated at 6.5 million in 2012, dispersed unevenly across the country. Most people live in valleys of the Mekong River and its tributaries. Vientiane prefecture, the capital and largest city, had about 740,010 residents in 2008. The country’s population density was 27/km2.[106]

Origine ethnique

Les habitants du Laos sont souvent considérés par leur répartition altitudinale (plaines, terres moyennes et hautes terres), car cela se rapproche des groupes ethniques.

Lao Loum (population de plaine)

Plus de la moitié de la population nationale, 60 pour cent, est le Lao ethnique, les principaux habitants des plaines et les personnes politiquement et culturellement dominantes du Laos. Les Laos appartiennent au groupe linguistique de Tai qui a commencé à migrer vers le sud en provenance de Chine au premier millénaire CE. Dix pour cent appartiennent à d’autres groupes “de plaine”, qui, avec le peuple lao, composent le Lao Loum .

Lao Theung (Midland people)

Dans les montagnes du centre et du sud, les tribus lun – khmères , connues sous le nom de Lao Theung ou les laotiens de milieu de pente, prédominent. D’autres termes sont Khmu, Khamu (Kammu) ou Kha comme le Lao Loum se réfère à eux comme indiquant leurs origines austroasiatiques . Cependant, ce dernier est considéré comme péjoratif, ce qui signifie «esclave». Ce sont les habitants indigènes du nord du Laos. Certains Vietnamiens , chinois et thaïlandais minorités demeurent, en particulier dans les villes, mais beaucoup sont partis après l’ indépendance dans les années 1940, dont beaucoup relocalisés soit au Vietnam , à Hong Kong , ou France . Lao Theung représente environ 30% de la population.

Lao Soung (peuple des hautes terres)

Les gens de la colline et les cultures minoritaires du Laos, comme les Hmong , Yao (Mien) , Dao , Shan et plusieurs Tibetos-Burman , ont vécu dans des régions isolées du Laos depuis de nombreuses années. Tribus Montagne / colline du patrimoine ethno / culturel-linguistique mixte se trouvent dans le nord du Laos qui comprennent les LUA et les Khamu qui sont indigènes au Laos. Aujourd’hui, les Lua sont considérés comme menacés. Collectivement, ils sont connus sous le nom de Lao Soung ou les laotiens des hauts plateaux. Lao Soung ne représente que 10% environ de la population. [108]

Langues

La langue officielle et dominante est le Lao , une langue tonale du groupe linguistique Tai . Cependant, seulement un peu plus de la moitié de la population peut parler Lao. Le reste, en particulier dans les zones rurales, parle les langues des minorités ethniques. L’ alphabet lao , qui a évolué au cours des 13e et 14e siècles, a été dérivé de l’ancien scénario khmer et est très similaire à celui de la Thaïlande et est facilement compris par les lecteurs du script thaïlandais. [109] langues comme Khamu et Hmong sont parlées par les minorités, en particulier dans les zones montagneuses et midland. Un certain nombre de langues de signes laotien sont utilisées dans des zones où les taux de surdité congénitale sont élevés.

Le français est encore couramment utilisé dans le gouvernement et le commerce et plus d’un tiers des élèves du Laos sont éduqués par le français, le français étant obligatoire pour tous les autres étudiants. Tout au long de la signalisation du pays est bilingue en laotien et en français, le français étant prédominant. L’anglais , langue de l’Association des nations de l’Asie du Sud-Est ( ASEAN ), est devenu de plus en plus étudié ces dernières années. [110]

Religion

Article principal: Religion au Laos

67 pour cent des Laotiens sont Theravada bouddhistes , 1,5 pour cent sont chrétiens, et 31,5 pour cent sont d’ autres ou non spécifié ( la plupart des praticiens de Satsana Phi ) [111] selon le recensement de 2005. [1] Le bouddhisme a longtemps été l’ une des plus importantes forces sociales au Laos. Le bouddhisme Theravada a coexisté pacifiquement depuis son introduction au pays avec le polythéisme local .

Santé

Article principal: Santé au Laos

L’ espérance de vie masculine à la naissance était de 60,85 ans et l’espérance de vie des femmes était de 64,76 ans en 2012. [1] L’ espérance de vie saine était de 54 ans en 2007. [112] En 2008, 43% de la population n’avait pas accès à de l’eau sanitaire Ressources. En 2010, cela avait été réduit à 33% de la population. [1] Les dépenses publiques en santé représentent environ quatre pour cent du PIB, [112] environ 18 dollars (PPP) en 2006. [112]

Education

Article principal : éducation au Laos
Voir aussi: Bibliothèque nationale du Laos

L’adulte alphabétisation taux dépasse les deux tiers. [113] Le taux d’alphabétisation masculin dépasse le taux d’alphabétisation féminin. [112] Le taux d’alphabétisation total est de 73% (estimation de 2010).

En 2004, le taux net de scolarisation primaire était de 84%. [112]

L’ Université nationale du Laos est l’université publique de l’État du Laos.

Culture

Theravada Le bouddhisme est une influence dominante dans la culture du Laos. Il se reflète dans tout le pays de la langue au temple et dans l’art, la littérature, les arts de la scène, etc. Cependant, de nombreux éléments de la culture laoient avant le bouddhisme. Par exemple, la musique laotienne est dominée par son instrument national , le khaen , un type de tuyau de bambou qui a des origines préhistoriques. Le khaen accompagnait traditionnellement le chanteur de lam , le style dominant de la musique folklorique . Parmi les styles de lam , le lam saravane est probablement le plus populaire .

Le riz collant est un aliment de base caractéristique et a une signification culturelle et religieuse pour le peuple lao. Le riz collant est généralement préféré au riz au jasmin, et on croit que la culture et la production de riz collant sont originaires du Laos. Il existe de nombreuses traditions et rituels associés à la production de riz dans différents milieux et parmi de nombreux groupes ethniques. Par exemple, les agriculteurs de Khammu à Luang Prabang plantent la variété de riz Khao Kam en petites quantités près de la hutte en souvenir des parents morts ou au bord du riz pour indiquer que les parents sont encore vivants. [114]

Le Sinh est un vêtement traditionnel porté par les femmes laotiennes dans la vie quotidienne. C’est une jupe en soie tissée à la main qui peut identifier la femme qui la porte de diverses façons. En particulier, il peut indiquer de quelle région provient le porteur.

Polygamie

Plus d’informations: la polygamie au Laos

La polygamie est officiellement un crime au Laos, bien que la peine soit mineure. La constitution et le Code de la famille interdisent la reconnaissance juridique des mariages polygames, stipulant que la monogamie doit être la principale forme de mariage dans le pays. La polygamie, cependant, est encore habituelle chez certains Hmong . [115]

Médias

Tous les journaux sont publiés par le gouvernement, dont deux journaux de langue étrangère: le quotidien anglais Vientiane Times et l’ hebdomadaire francophone Le Rénovateur . De plus, le Khao San Pathet Lao, l’agence de presse officielle du pays, publie des versions anglaise et française de son article éponyme. Le Laos compte actuellement neuf journaux quotidiens, 90 magazines, 43 stations de radio et 32 ​​stations de télévision opérant dans tout le pays. [ Citation nécessaire ] À partir de 2011 , Nhân Dân (The People) et l’ Agence de presse Xinhua sont les seules organisations de médias étrangers autorisées à ouvrir des bureaux au Laos – les deux bureaux ouverts à Vientiane en 2011. [ citation nécessaire ]

Le gouvernement lao contrôle fortement tous les moyens de communication afin de prévenir la critique de ses actions. Les citoyens lao qui ont critiqué le gouvernement ont été victimes de disparitions forcées, d’arrestations arbitraires et de torture. [116] [117]

Les cybercafés sont maintenant courants dans les principaux centres urbains et sont particulièrement populaires auprès des jeunes générations.

Depuis la fondation de la République démocratique populaire lao, très peu de films ont été réalisés au Laos. L’un des premiers longs métrages commerciaux a été Sabaidee Luang Prabang , réalisé en 2008. [118] Le premier long métrage du cinéaste australien Kim Mordount a été réalisé au Laos et dispose d’un casting laotien parlant leur langue maternelle. Intitulé The Rocket , le film est apparu au 2013 International Film Festival de Melbourne (MIFF) et a remporté trois prix au Berlin International Film Festival. [119] Récemment, quelques entreprises de production locales ont réussi à produire des longs métrages Lao et à obtenir une reconnaissance internationale. Parmi eux se trouvent Lao New Wave Cinema’s At the Horizon , réalisé par Anysay Keola, Qui a été projeté au OzAsia Film Festival [120] et Chianaly de Lao Art Media dirigé par Mattie Do , qui a été projeté lors de 2013 Fantastic Fest . [121] [122]

Sport

L’art martial de Muay Lao , le sport national, [ citation nécessaire ] est une forme de kickboxing similaire à la Thaïlande Muay Thai , Birmanie Lethwei et cambodgienne Pradal Serey .

Le football d’association est devenu le sport le plus populaire au Laos. La Ligue Lao est maintenant la meilleure ligue professionnelle pour les clubs de football d’association dans le pays. Depuis le début de la Ligue, Lao Army FC a été le club le plus réussi avec 8 titres (suite à la saison 2007-2008), le plus grand nombre de victoires du championnat. [123]


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